All singular nouns are zero marked.
(NB: That means there is nothing that marks the singular: just as in English.)
For nouns in the m class, the plural has three regular allomorphs: -ma, -mi, and -mu conditioned by the last vowel of the stem. If the stem ends in [a], -ma is used. If the stem ends in [i], -mi is used. If the stem ends in [u], -mu is used. -na is the plural suffix for all na class nouns regardless of ending vowel. In accordance with phonotactic rules, word-final /q/ is deleted before the ending is added.
|Liqupa Form with Morpheme Breaks||Gloss||Translation|
There are five kinds of possession in Liqupa. Both noun classes are treated the same.
the people's souls
ashes (of a wildfire) qa-qaqu (end of)-wildfire
ashes (of a campfire) qa-qu-mana-ya (end of)-captive-sun-small (qumanaya = campfire)
branch palama (not related to the word for tree)
child miqi-ya person-small
cloud qa-susu-siqu end-water-snow (qasusu = sky) (na class)
day naqu-di bright-continuous (note this is m class)
egg pipa-qiq bird-seed
(wild) fire qaqu (na class)
(camp)fire qu-mana-ya captive-star-small
heart qasi (m class; physical heart: tangible)
heart qasi (na class) emotion or center (Note that one cannot use 'qasi' to mean emotion or love).
house qi-dusi hardened-tent (houses are relatively new on the island: people traditionally lived in yurts of woven fabric)
idea, thought haha (na class)
Leaf pimala-yaqu tree-hand (this is the formal word for 'leaf'; there are many other, simpler, more specific forms)
night muda-di dark-continuous (na class)
river li-sa spirit-go * further grammatical note (NB: This is a verb not a noun.) ** Etymological Note
root nui Polysemous with nui: bedrock/foundation
sand -nala (bound root) It was once reported that Liqupa has over 400 words for sand!
shaman, sage; (while living) li-ha-sa spirit-know-go (verb) *
shamman, sage (yet to be born) mai-qiq pine-seed (na class) Note that maiqiq (m class) means pine cone.
shamman, sage (of ages past) li-mai spirit-pinetree (na class)
sky qa-susu (end of) water (na class)
smoke li-qaqu spirit-wildfire (from a wild fire (na class)
smoke li-qu-mana-ya spirit-captive-sun-small, white smoke from a campfire (m class)
star mana-ya sun-small
stone qi-nala hardened-sand
story li-qasi spirit-center
tree pimala (not related to branch)
dragon qi-nala-piq hardened-sand-incarnate (qi-nala = stone
mana-pila sun-food strawberry
pine tree maimai
pine cone mai-qiq pine-seed (m class). Note that maiqiq (na class) means shamman who is yet to be born.
snow siqu (NOte that snow occurs only on the peak of an unclimbable mountain in the center of the island.)
alive piqu adj
bright naqu adj
dark muda adj
good siq adj
know -li-ha spirit-know to have wisdom, to be wise (verb)
know -qi-ha hardened-know; to be educated, to know facts
live -piqu (verb)
captive/confined/subjugated qu- bound derivational prefix
continuous -di bound derivational suffix
end of qa- bound derivational prefix
go -sa bound derivational suffix (verb)
incarnate -piq; denotes the prototype or essence of a thing, bound derivational affix from verb/adj piqu
small -ya bound derivational suffix: from adj yaya 'small'
spirit li- bound derivational prefix: most but not all words that contain li- are na class
Since these forms carry inherent lexical tense, they cannot be inflected for tense when they serve as verbs.
(It is suspected now that the given name Lisa is in fact, a Liqupan borrowing rather than an English innovation, backformation from Hebrew "Elisabeth". This is further supported by historical research which indicates that the name Lisa was in fact, first used in english speaking countries around xxxx which is, not coincidentally, the same year in which the first contact was made with Liqupans on vacation in Puerto Rico.
Here for more information on the traditional account.
Back to Language Creation Page
(It is suspected now that the given name Lisa is in fact, a Liqupan borrowing rather than an English innovation, backformation from Hebrew "Elisabeth". This is further supported by historical research which indicates that the name Lisa was in fact, first used in english speaking countries around xxxx which is, not coincidentally, the same year in which the first contact was made with Liqupans on vacation in Puerto Rico. Click Here for more information on the traditional account.