Example 8: Descriptors
There is no copula in the present tense in Liqupa. The negative free morpheme is wuci.
In past and future tenses, bound root -yi is used as a vehicle to carry tense. The resulting copula does not inflect for person as do other verbs.
- mana wiwi
The sun is beautiful.
- dupu laq pa-yi
moon round PAST-COP
The moon was round.
- didi-piq a pasa-yi
buttocks-incarnate 2 PAST3-COP
You were a fool (even) before you were born.
a fine classic Liqupa insult
mana-ya-ma wiwi nu-yi
sun-small-PL beautiful FU3-COP
The stars will be beautiful tonight.
This expression is often used as a reassurance when giving bad news: everything can fall apart, but the stars will be beautiful tonight.
modify M class nouns do not agree with the head nouns in any way. Adjectives which modify Na class nouns, however, must appear with a -na suffix even when their associated noun is not plural.
- yuq pimala-ma
- yali-na lisa
Note that 'river' is -na class but singular.
- waya-na li-mici-na
- wiwi-na li-mici
a beautiful soul
- waya mici-mi
a beautiful person
- -li is a suffix which
changes nouns and verbs into adjectives
like a person, generally used as a compliment
- There are several ways to change nouns and adjectives into verbs. One can append -sa (come) or -sia (ingest)
walk mici-sa person-come
wake up mana-sia sun-ingest
The default is to append -hu from the free form 'huhu' meaning 'make or do'.
yali-hu long-do, to make long, to stretch
dusi-hu yurt-do, to weave, to create shelter
- -ka (thought to be historically derived from 'kana', is a nominalizeing suffix
It hanges adjectives and verbs into nouns
Note the haplology that occurs in casual speech when the adjective or verb consists of two identical syllables.
Lovely one, sweetheart
(from 'wiwi' (beautiful) + -ka)
an evening stroll
Adjectives are negated by prefixing 'wuci-' to the free adjectival root word.
ungood; not good
short, not long
dark or black muda
dry nala homophonous with -nala=sand
full waya polysemous with all
new yiyi homophone of ,yiyi, begin
-yi bound suffix meaning either to be or (on nouns) origin
ka- bound derivational prefix end of
small -ya bound derivational suffix
strange laiwalai (Note: this form was historically lawucilai (lailai + infix wuq neg)) ordinary-neg-ordinary
white siqu polysemous with snow; note that the emergent pattern might predict the form would be siq but that means ,good,.
reassuringly ordinary; fine lailai
pipa-li bird-ADJ, 'birdish' describes a person who happily rises early and goes to bed early
Siqu-li snow-ADJ, (snowy) lovely and unattainable, sparkling, hopeful
yaqu-li five-ADJ, few
Where would you like to go??