Language Structure Problems

Glossing: Boylang

Please provide the free english translation of the following sentences. Determining the order of subject, verb and object as early as possible will help you as will determining the order of noun and adjective.

1. zin-d et tomna
like-PRS 1.SG story.PL

2. ulk-un al um-ual John s-et ansi-ansi-k tumna
hear-PST on before-day John and-1.SG think-think-ADJ story

3. lit-er-ni do kok at me
speech-VERB-FUT for 2.PL 3.N

4. bam-b aska di me
COP-PRS about boy 3.N

5. bam-b alar-di ki Nibs
COP-PRS POSS-boy name Nibs

6. maik-wen-d et tana tik
have-NEG-PRS 1.PL big time

7. lit-er-t kwa tin et me
speech-VERB-PRS with speed 1.SG 3.N

8. bam-an Nibs lar wen-saia-de klip
COP-PST Nibs of NEG-family-boy.PL one

9. tSi-plas-an al lama-lama-k wen-el-tik tSol harak me-d
up-go-PST during clear-clear-ADJ NEG-light-time from house 3-M

10. bam-an bo el-el-ik
COP-PST star.PL light-light-ADJ

11. mig-in Nibs suli mon
see-PST Nibs mysterious creature

12. eb-in kwa wen-tin tua me me-d
fly-PST with NEG-speed toward 3.N 3-M

13. mig-mig-er-in kwa witi hetS me-d
look-look-VERB-PST with two eye.PL 3-M

14. bam-wen-in me di

15. bam-wen-in me tin-tin-k eb-el
COP-NEG-PST 3.N speed-speed-ADJ fly-light

16. bam-an-ro me wen-di

17. hom-kri-jap-an tSol pria me-d me
try-CAUS-fall-PST from sky 3-M 3.N

18. kri-eb-in tua me me-d kri-kan-ak
CAUS-fly-PST toward 3.N 3-M CAUS-die-stick.PL

19. wen-Sar-an ma

20. hom-un al im me-d blahal kri-kan-ek
try-PST after that 3-M magic CAUS-die-stick

21. Sar-an hu hitS me me
hit-PST in eye 3.N 3.N

22. wes jap-wen-in me
but fall-NEG-PST 3.N

23. tSi-tin-eb-in me
up-speed-fly-PST 3.N

24. lub-un al im tua saia Nibs
go-PST after that toward home Nibs

A. What is the order of subject, verb and object in the data above?

B. What is the order of noun and Adjective?

C. What is the purpose of reduplication in this language?

D. How is the plural formed?

E. Describe fully how tense is marked, accounting for any variation you find.

F. This language lacks an affix which changes words into adverbs. Although there are elements that function adverbially, you might make the argument that there are no true adverbs in this language. How is that possible? What mechanisms does the language use to express adverbial information?

G. There is a form which is glossed as ADJ, but it does not occur everywhere a form functions as an adjective. What is it, when is it used and what other meaning or purpose might it have? If it were a grammaticalized form, what might the source of that form have been?

H. Study the prepositions you find. One of these appears to be polysemous. which one is that and what is its core meaning?

I. The form -d appears to be homonymous. It is glossed as M (masculine) when it is part of a pronoun and PRS (present tense) when suffixed to a verb. can you think of an English example of a function morpheme with more than one distinct meaning? Can you think of an english example of a derivational affix which appears to have more than one distinct meaning?

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