Language Structure Problems

Phonetics: SAMPA

This is a set of resources for the use of SAMPA.
Please do *not* use this section if you are working on IPA.

Phonetics: IPA

This is a set of resources for the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Please note that the Unicode symbol for 'syllabic consonant may not be correctly implemented on some systems. Here is an 'r' with the stroke beneath it representing syllabic [r̩]. If this appears as r followed by a blank square, please be aware that this is how syllabic consonants will show up for you.

Place, Manner and Voicing: Phonological Processes

Practice with place manner and voicing. The following are lists of segments: consonants given by place manner and voicing and vowels either transcribed or listed by features. Strung together, the segments make sentences.


Phonological Processes

Classroom Activities

Finding Phonemes

A few initial written thoughts on finding phonemes and allophones

Phoneme Detection

This set of phonology problems comes with answers in audio as well as written form. click on the name of the language to read the data. Links to the answers appear on the bottom of the page after the data.

In writing up the answers to these, I've tried to use slightly different wording each time. It is essentially one of the same two messages over and over, but expressed in slightly different manners.

Remember: if you find a minimal pair, the two sounds contrast and are different phonemes: English dime/time. You can substitute a /d/ for a /t/ and get a new word. /d/ and /t/ can occur in the same environment: the same place in a word.

If you find a pattern for the occurrence of the two sounds, they are in complementary distribution and are allophones of the same phoneme: For example, English t and aspirated t are in complementary distribution: you cannot substitute one for the other. If you do substitute one for the other, you will never get a new word: just a badly pronounced version of the same word you started with.

First Set of Problems

More Problems without Posted Solutions

Fun with Syllables

Orthography and Phonology



Slightly more Tricky

With Answers

With Allomorphs and Answers, too

No Answer Posted

Word Order

Practice Glossing


First Language Acquisition



Anything Goes

Second Language Acquisition


Updated: 3 18, 2021