Language Structure Problems
Building Grammatical Sentences in Grammax
Here are the rules for creating grammatical sentences in Gramax. Using these rules, and the vocabulary below, translate the sentences at the bottom of the page and answer the questions.
Nominal Function Affixes and Free Function Morphemes
- Genders: 3. Marked with free articles preposed to the NP
- am -- natural objects: animals, objects in nature, foods
- ukt -- artificial artifacts: tools, buildings, professions,
- sil -- intangible: peace, vengance, ideas
- Number: marking depends on gender: each gender has its own corresponding bound morpheme prefixed to the noun in addition to the article (see above).
- Singular is zero marked
- Prefixes for the dual are:--
- 1: mala-
- 2: tikra-
- 3: en
- Prefixes for Plural are:
Verbal Function Affixes and Free Morphemes
- Tense: is accomplished through a free morpheme placed after the verb for present and past and a circumfix of free morphemes in the future
- Future: -- ti -- ak
- Present -- so
- past -- le
- Agreement: Verbs agree with their subjects in number
Agreement is marked on verbs with a bound prefix
- singular is zero marked
- dual: tiri-
- plural: en-
- all transitive verbs are marked with -ak
far away from: nir
Form the following sentences:
- The child eats.
- The idea falls on the ground.
- The children had a big house
- The hammer will hit the 2 round stones
- The teachers have some funny ideas.
- The small child had the two sharp stones far from the house.
- The hammer will fall.
- The stones hit the floor.
- What does sentence #2 mean? How do you know?
- Sometimes, when aglutination of morphemes causes difficulty in pronunciation, languages address this through the creation of irregular forms. What combination(s) in thes data might we expect to yield this kind of eventual language change?
- What can we deduce about Grammax from the fact that the word for 'stone' in this language is 'ston'?
- What should be done about the 'away' in the translation for #6?
- What other translation difficulties did the sentences cause and how didyou address these?