Language Structure Problems

Building Grammatical Sentences in Grammax

Here are the rules for creating grammatical sentences in Gramax. Using these rules, and the vocabulary below, translate the sentences at the bottom of the page and answer the questions.

Constituent Order

Nominal Function Affixes and Free Function Morphemes

Verbal Function Affixes and Free Morphemes


big: kua
child: apulk
eat: sim
fall: klank
far away from: nir
funny: tikitiki
ground: ele
hammer: kulir
have: eik
hit: kuilter
house: grislo
idea: mbard
on: alt
round: sria
sharp: ad
small: lu
stone: ston
teacher: pulkaf

Form the following sentences:
  1. The child eats.
  2. The idea falls on the ground.
  3. The children had a big house
  4. The hammer will hit the 2 round stones
  5. The teachers have some funny ideas.
  6. The small child had the two sharp stones far from the house.
  7. The hammer will fall.
  8. The stones hit the floor.

Additional questions

  1. What does sentence #2 mean? How do you know?
  2. Sometimes, when aglutination of morphemes causes difficulty in pronunciation, languages address this through the creation of irregular forms. What combination(s) in thes data might we expect to yield this kind of eventual language change?
  3. What can we deduce about Grammax from the fact that the word for 'stone' in this language is 'ston'?
  4. What should be done about the 'away' in the translation for #6?
  5. What other translation difficulties did the sentences cause and how didyou address these?