Language Structure Problems

Glossing Practice: KoruNoS

To fully explicate a text in a new language, the linguist arranges the text in three lines as indicated below:

The first line contains the new language, with hyphens placed between morphemes and spaces between words.

The second line is a morpheme-by-morpheme translation of the first. Content morphemes are translated into English and function morphemes are given labels which describe their purpose. Hyphens separate morphemes; spaces separate words. This means that line 1 and 2 should have the same number of words and the same number of morpheems. Ideally, we would line them up so you could glance directly beneath a word and read its gloss.

The third line is a 'free' English translation. There are no hyphens on this line and care is taken to make the sentence flow naturally in English, adding or eliminating function morphemes as necessary and replacing any awkward-sounding content morphemes with forms that soundmore natural. Words can be rearranged as necessary, and one may need to thik creatively to convey the correct tone insome cases.

Following are some glossed data from KoruNoS, a hitherto undocumented extraterrestrial language. Supply line three for each sentence 1-12. that is, construct the grammatical English sentences indicated by the glosses, then answer the questions. Consult the Leipzig Glossing Rules if you don't know what an abbreviation stands for. Once you find out which grammatical concept the abbreviation indicates, be sure you understand that concept before trying to create the English sentence. there are a variety of grammar references available online or in textbooks. Use the reliable reference you prefer. Your translations should be smooth, natural-sounding English sentences which together make a coherent story.

Note about the transcription: In the data which follow:
[N] = velar nasal
[S] = voiceless alveopalatal fricative

1. kili i-la-nan slin kot-ku sa S-NoS-i.
1.SG DAT-2-PL story truth-ADJ INDF.ART FUT-tell-1

2. dro blik Mara-kin two-lu a-di-la
3.N.SG about Mara-POSS sibbling-M PRS-COP-3

3. lu tat porp-der zIN sa o-di-la.
3.M.SG man honest-NEG very INDF.ART PST-COP-3

4. lu bim-kru-tat sa o-di-la so-ki
3.M.SG NMLZ-steal-man INDF.ART PST-COP-3 actual-ADV

5. Mara mel kili tat-zi-nan ilk-ma-nan dwa o-kwa-i
Mara and 1.SG man-metal-PL money-ADJ-PL two PST-have-1

6. lu ali o-kru-la
3.M.SG 3.PL PST-steal-3

7. kili-nan bim-mliz ik-Sli-mo lak sa o-kwa-i
1-PL NMLZ-fly CAUS-space-twist new INDF.ART PST-have-1

8. kaSik-wu-kin pap-ip prIl-der do dro o-kru-la skit
KaSik-dweller-POSS sit-part pretty-NEG DEF.ART 3.N.SG PST-steal-3 also

9. melna kili-nan se-gan-dan nip-nan do o-ik-nif-i 1-PL sword-red-PL nearby-PL DEF PST-CAUS-come-1

10. kili-nan lu u-der o-nul-der-i dZat
1-PL 3.M.SG again-NEG PST-see-NEG-1 never

11. kili blik dro etsa yi-der sa a-kwa-i
1.SG about 3.N.SG sensation good-NEG INDF PRS-have-1

12. pas do am lu wa-di-us
spirit DEF.ART with 3M.SG allow-COP-IMP

A. What is the order of subject, object and verb in this language?
B. What is the order of noun and adjective?
C. Where do you find agreement marking in the language?
D. Are there morphemes in the KoruNoS sentences that are not used in the English translation? Explain.
E. Are there places where you had to add or change content or function morphemes to make yur English sentences work out? Explain.
F. Are there places where you are unsure of your translations? Explain.