Language Structure Problems

Consonant and Vowel Chains

In correct English orthography, write the word that results from the series of changes described below. The example gives you the result of each step to demonstrate how this works, but you only have to report the final output after all the steps. You may, if it helps, write down the results of each individual process. that's up to you. Note that not all of the intermediate forms will necessarily be 'real' words but the end product will be. Remember that you should be working with the sounds of the words *not* the spelling. To do this successfully, you'll have to know both the phonological processes and place manner and voicing of segments. Here's an example:


Part 1: Chains

1. Begin with the word 'basket'
place of articulation assimilation in the consonant cluster (note there are two possibilities: pick the one that eventually gives you a real word.)
syncope of the fricative
palatalization of first voiceless stop (you may have to change manner when you palatalize)
apocope of last two segments
nasalization of initial segment
(Hint: it's a verb)

2. Begin with the word 'stir'
epenthesize a high front tense vowel between the two alveolar consonants
voice the stop
(Hint: it's a kind of tree)

3. Begin with the word 'mississippi'
last consonant undergoes place of articulation assimilation conditioned by the fricative
single segment apocope
-- --
(Hint: a phrase: verb + direct object)

4. Begin with the word 'parties'
syncope on any consonant in any syllable coda
metathesize the stops
delete any consonant whose place of articulation is interdental or forward of interdental
Move the high vowel into the coda of the preceding syllable
(Hint: it goes with #7)

5. Begin with the word 'gangster'
Delete any consonant that is velar
metathesize fricative and adjacent vowel
voice the stop
(Hint: an adjective with an inflectional suffix)

6. Begin with the phrase 'bless you'
palatalization of fricative
aphaeresis in second word
in first word, cluster simplification that does not result in aphesis
nasalization of first segment in first word
breaking of first vowel ( note that the term 'breaking' is sometimes used to describe the process by which a monothong (simple vowel) becomes a diphthong.) Pick the diphthong that works.
-- --
(hint: two word noun phrase)

7. begin with the word 'sweet'
syncope on the vowel
Move the glide into the nucleus of the syllable
(hint: a noun)

8. Begin with the phrase 'back door'
coalescence of two adjacent stops: (note there are two possible results here; pickthe one that gives you a real word at the final step)
devoice the bilabial
reduce the final vowel
(Hint: the sound of little feet)

9. begin with the word 'tired'. (pronounced as one syllable)
metathesis of vowel an dliquid
voicing assimilation of initial segment
(Hint: past tense verb)

10. Begin with the word prism
desyllabify the nasal
metathisize last two segments
lateralize the liquid
reduce the vowel
(hint: something to eat)

11. begin with the word 'broccoli' (pronounced in three syllables)
metathesis of nonlateral liquid and first vowel
syncope of vowel after the velar stop
single segment apocope
syllabify last liquid
epenthesis of an initial voiceless alvelar friccative
first stop assimilates in voicing to the initial consonant
(Hint: it's pretty)

12. Begin with the word 'puppies'
delete any mid vowels
final devoicing
epenthesize a voiceless velar stop into the coda of the syllable in front of the fricative
change the vowel to 'lax'
(Hint: goes with #10)

Part 2: create your own

Please create five new chains, using part one as examples. Extra points given for relating words semantically to one another as done in 10 and 12 above for example.... but don't make them too easy! Please show the result of each step in tanscription and give the answers.